Crystals are solid materials that have atoms arranged in regular patterns. Do you remember what atoms are? They’re those tiny building blocks that everything in our entire world is made of. So when these atoms fit together in a nice repeating pattern, we get a crystal. Almost all minerals are made of crystals. Some crystals can clump together to make rocks.

Crystals can be really beautiful and can be cut and shaped into jewellery. They usually have flat sides called 'facets' and sharp edges.

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How do crystals form?

Crystals can form in many different ways. The process of forming crystals is called crystallization.

When hot liquids like magma cool down slowly and harden, they can form crystals. Many crystals like diamonds, rubies and emeralds form this way and are considered very valuable. Who would have thought such beautiful crystals started out as magma! That’s amazing.

Some crystals form when water from a chemical mixture evaporates. When salt water evaporates it leaves salt crystals behind.